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Cellular Respiration and the Mighty Mitochondria

Cellular Respiration and the Mighty Mitochondria

Closed captioning is on. To turn off, click the CC button at bottom right. Follow us on Twitter (@amoebasisters) and Facebook! Are you a morning person? One of us is and
one if us is definitely not. Mainly because, when I wake up in the morning, it just takes
a while for me to feel like I get my energy back. It takes a lot of time—and coffee—for
that to happen for me. Cells don’t really have that luxury. They
are busy performing cell processes all the time and many of the processes that they
do require energy. Specifically, ATP energy. ATP stands for adenosine tri phosphate. It’s
a type of nucleic acid actually, and it is action packed with three phosphates. When
the chemical bond that holds the third phosphate is broken, it releases a great amount of energy.
It also is converted into ADP, adenosine di phosphate. And really, that’s just a fancy
way of saying that it has two phosphates after losing one. So where am I going with this? Well, cells
have to make this ATP energy. It doesn’t really matter what kind of cell you are—prokaryote
or eukaryote—you have to make ATP energy. The process for making that ATP energy can
be different, however, depending on the type of cell. But you have to make ATP energy. One way that this can be done efficiently
is called aerobic cellular respiration. We are going to focus on aerobic in eukaryote cells which have many membrane bound organelles
such as mitochondria. The mitochondria is are going to be kind of a big deal in this. So let’s get started. Remember we are trying
to make ATP energy. Let’s take a look at this formula. Remember that reactants (inputs)
are on the left side of the arrow. And products (outputs) are on the right side of the arrow. This formula, by the way, looks remarkably
similar to photosynthesis. Look how the reactants and products just seem to be on different
sides. You know why? See, in photosynthesis, organisms
(like plants and protists for example) made glucose. Notice how glucose is a product.
But in cellular respiration, we break the glucose. Notice how glucose is a reactant.
In order to make ATP energy. So photosynthesis makes glucose—and cellular
respiration, it breaks glucose. Kind of cool. Photosynthetic organisms have the best of
both worlds because they not only do photosynthesis to make their glucose but they do cellular
respiration to break it. I say that’s pretty great, because glucose is the starter molecule
in cellular respiration and needed in order to get this going. If you aren’t photosynthetic,
such as a human or an amoeba, you have to find a food source to get your glucose. Cellular
respiration involves three major steps. We are going to assume that we are starting with
one glucose molecule so that you can see what is produced from one glucose molecule. #1 Glycolysis- This step takes place in the
cytoplasm, and this step does not require oxygen. Glucose, the sugar from the formula,
is converted into a more usable form called pyruvate. It actually takes a little ATP energy
itself to get this process started. The net yield from this step is approximately 2 ATP
molecules. And 2 NADH molecules. What is NADH? NADH is a coenzyme, and it has the ability
to transfer electrons, which will be very useful in making even more ATP later on. We’ll
get to that in a minute. #2 Krebs Cycle-This is also called the Citric
Acid Cycle. We are now involved in the mitochondria, and this step requires oxygen. The pyruvate
that was made is converted and will be oxidized. CO2 (carbon dioxide) is produced. We produce 2 ATP, 6 NADH, and 2FADH2. FADH is also a
coenzyme, like NADH, and it will also assist in transferring electrons to make even more
ATP. #3 The electron transport chain. This is,
just, a beautiful thing. Really. We’re still in the mitochondria, and we do require oxygen
for this step. This is a very complicated process, and we are greatly simplifying it
by saying that electrons are transferred from the NADH and FADH2 to several electron carriers.
They are used to create a proton gradient. The protons are used to power an amazing enzyme
ATP synthase. Remember that the word synthase means to “make” so that’s what ATP synthase
does. All the time. It makes the ATP by adding phosphates to ADP. Oxygen is the final acceptor
of the electrons. When oxygen combines with two protons, you get H20—aka water. The electron transport chain produces
a lot of ATP compared to the other two steps. There isn’t an exact number on this—many
textbooks will say 34 ATP. Meaning that the net amount of ATP made when you add all the
steps together is 38 ATP. But you need to understand that this is a “perfect case”
scenario and in general, you can expect a lot less ATP made. If we look at our formula again, we can see
how the glucose and oxygen on the reactant side was used to produce carbon dioxide (a
waste product), water (a waste product), and ATP energy. ATP energy was our goal. Now, this was just one way of creating ATP
energy—and a very efficient way at that. But like we had said at the beginning, all
cells have to make ATP energy. But the way that they do it can differ. If there is no
oxygen available, some cells have the ability to perform a process known as fermentation.
It is not nearly as efficient, but it can still can make ATP when there isn’t oxygen. We really can’t emphasize enough how important
the process of making ATP energy is. If you doubt how powerful it is, consider cyanide.
This toxin is found in some rat poisons and highly toxic. It works by blocking a step
in the electron transport chain. Without being able to continue the electron transport chain,
cells cannot produce their ATP, and this poison can be deadly in a very short timeframe. There is also a demand for increased research
on various mitochondrial disorders. Many mitochondrial disorders can be deadly, because the role
of the mitochondria in our body cells is so essential for our ATP production. We are confident
that the understanding of how to treat these disorders will continue to improve as more
people, like you, ask questions. Well that’s it for the amoeba sisters and we remind you
to stay curious.

100 comments on “Cellular Respiration and the Mighty Mitochondria

  1. This topic is now part of our Unlectured Series! More info here:
    Also, we appreciate feedback on our videos and pin clarifications on our videos if needed. We do wish we had been more clear stating that the Krebs cycle "'indirectly" requires oxygen" instead of just stating it "requires oxygen" —as we do not want to imply that oxygen is a reactant in the Krebs cycle (Citric Acid Cycle). While oxygen is not a reactant for the Krebs Cycle, the oxidation steps of the Krebs Cycle cannot occur without the presence of oxygen. (Thus, the Krebs Cycle is considered an aerobic process)
    Reference Source: OpenStax[email protected]:[email protected]/Oxidation-of-Pyruvate-and-the-

  2. Nice video and voice! 2 ( probably dumb ) questions,? How does the oxygen get into the matrix and where do all those proton ion's come from in the matrix?

  3. Was the drawing done in MS Paint? I'm saying that because I can recognize MS Paint from anywhere. Either MS Paint or Scratch was used to make this video.

  4. Cellandning:

    C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP

    Cellen använder Glukos och syre för att tillverka ATP.
    CO2 och vatten som biprodukt.


    En anaerob reaktion händer i cytoplasman, glukos ändras med hjälp av ATP till Pyrodruvsyror. Bildar 2 ATP och 2 NADH (koenzym som kan bära elektorner)

    Krebs cyckel:


    Aerob reaktion i yttre membranen i mitokondrien där Pyrodruvsyran oxideras och det produceras 6 NADH, 2 FADH, 2 ATP och CO2.


    Aerob process i inre membranen av mitokondria. NADH och FADH2 elektroner tas upp av proteiner och används för att bilda en protongradient. Gradienten balanserad ut till slut av ATP syntas enzymet där ADP kombineras med fosfat och ~34 ATP och H2O bildas.

  5. This was pretty good, but I wish you would also work on a more detailed video on the krebs cycle and the electron chain in the mitochondreas inner(?) Membrane as well, it'd help loads, but thank you eitherway, best channel for reviewing biology and i love the cell characters! Cute af

  6. I loove this videos I'm 17 and although they're super simple they help me a lot clearing my mind and memorizing basic concepts. It's very entertaining and we'll explained even for an Spanish student like me👏💪😍

  7. Thank you its very useful and easy to understand . There was not one second that make me wanna sleep . Took me soo long in class to understand but now it only took me less then 10 min!

  8. These videos are so awesome!! Have the DAT coming up so it's nice to learn and get a little laugh every once in a while to keep me sane! You ladies are the real deal! Keep making videos so I can keep WANTING to learn more!

  9. Ohhh yuuuuh💀💀💀💀💀💀💀💀💀💀💀💀💀💀💀💀💀💀💀💀💀💀💀💀

  10. Finally I understand about cellular respiration, my teacher never taught me about this but only gave us a video which we had to take notes on and make a project which is due soon, I never understood because she would go talk to her friends, that are teachers, and we didn't even how to do it. The project was never explained directly which is why this video helped me so much, I also have testing for this whole week which is putting a lot of stress to me considering I have to study.

  11. Oh how much Amoeba sisters make MCAT topics so much easier for me <3 love you girls. I am a visual learner so this makes me understand so much better because of the cartoons and humor

  12. Brilliant and creative. I am interested in Body Mind Centering which talks a lot about cellular breathing this video is great at making biology interesting and entertaining so I can expand my insights into what being human is really about. Thanks

  13. LOL funny!! These vids seem like they are for kids cuz they are funny little cartoon creatures but the content is at college level. Professor is making us watch these for an online class.

  14. Currently studying for my nursing entrance exam. I’m currently an LPN trying to transition over to RN and now my head hurts from trying to understand high school biology . 😞

  15. I have a test next next day and I am totally doomed. We have this test before our exam called Summative and yeah we have two summatives this week and a report about the heart and respiration and the audience are the seniors which are future doctors and we just dissect a frog and we have a follow-up questions about it tomorrow. Wish me luck guys.

  16. You have the BEST videos!!! These videos saved me in a biology class with a really bad professor and are now helping with my A&P and Chem classes. Thank you so much for what you do!

  17. i have some questions so i can formulate all this info (i want to thank you for bein so goood at teaching, but there's somethings i didn't understand) thank you a lot for making this video, whoever can answer my question i'll be so glad i could learn about htis topic (and i'll subscibe to your channel 😉

    1. what is adenosine? ( i heard of it in the DNA but why is important to it to be here? in order to help you can answer by listing characteristics of its behavior and compare it to this work and what caracteristics are needed in this work, the thing is that i want to know how or why the heck cell need energy and how it work from an chemically perspective, what to understand what live means, am in, what do a lot of chemicals mixed together do, in order to stay joined, with other chemicals, what they do for staying alive, if somoene respond me i could understand life form, and how they interact and probably understand its interactions and change their interactions n order that from makinvg residues of… i don´t know CO2 i can change their interactions to form water, the thing is that i´ll love to learn and tech, in my country we lack info, if you help me, be sure you'll hel others, i just wanna know everything about cells, and part of understanding them is to know their power source , who introduce me to)

    2. for what the body needs atp and how the body use it? ( i just don't understand what means alive understand how thwy move and make their reaction happpen whenever they want and do another stuff without of thinking just nature of chemicals moving around and that thing, that cells and uni-cellulars are just chemicals mixed to ach other, how do they attack each other, why do they need to eat or the sun and, i dont know, i just wish to have a good teacher)

    3. why those quemicals? or tell me the caracteristics of those compounds, and later when together, chemicals behabior will join to create compund with definite characteristics, i'll love to know atp characteristics by answering their components characteristics.

    4. why do cells need ATP? and what they nedd it for and what Atp does to other that benefit the cel. what's the function of atp?

    5. why the cell needs that exact compound? why are they important for the cell and the atp?

    6. why the need to brake glucose? that way you can introduce respiration, what supply the need of breaking glucose, is what gives you the real reason of why you break the glucose at first, like say we need this, and for make it we use this, that way i understand)

    7. for what the cell respirate?

    8. how respiration work ( i know, i only what to remark the cronology in which i understand facts)

    9.why is glycolisis (i know) but why we need to make pyruvate?
    and why oxygen is not needed?

    10. how NADH transfer electrons,( i think i should know this after so i wont disrupt in the learning proces)

    what's the krebs cycle (i know) and why is named that way?

    12. from 4:09 to 4:31 is a lot of things i dont understand why there are neded and why what or how they contribute to the system

    13. what is electron trasnport chain, why and how this happens? and why the cell s need it?

    14. is it all ?

    man, i dont know if anyone could help me with this, i don´t know if i could pay some one who does it, but if you want it, you´ll make a pearson an dmuch more, more intelligent an made me happy, i'll wish someone answer :_)

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